Enhanced the teaching and learning environment will contribute to reducing high drop-out rates and increase enrollment. Jobs to the local people along with on-the-job training on earthquake resilient construction and build-back-safer construction principles will help to improve their overall livelihood situation. Go Go. RRN Publications. Objective - People and social infrastructure are less affected by future disasters in project intervention areas. Geographic coverage. Project duration.
February to July Welthungerhilfe, Germany. Target groups. The Skopje valley is situated along the upstream course of the Vardar river. It represents a neotectonic depression infilled with neogene quaternary molassic layers, while the surrounding terrain consists of pre-neogene formations of Precambrian, Paleozoic and early alpine stage, represented by uplifted mountain massifs of a height varying from to metres.
The central part of the Skopje depression is an alluvium plain at an altitude of to metres, while the surrounding hilly terrain is metres in height 2,3. The most important dislocation is along the faults stretching through the town of Skopje from the Vardar zone and east-west, along which lateral, left-direction subsidence occurs Fig.
This earthquake had a magnitude of 6. The epicentral area was located in downtown Skopje. The tremendous energy released, the shallow hypocentre, and inadequate construction during the pre-earthquake period were the three main reasons for the serious damage to almost all types of structures.
Figure 4. Geological map of the Skopje area. Before the earthquake, Skopje had slightly more than inhabitants. The city had undergone intensive residential and infrastructure construction. In the period from the s to the time of the earthquake, there were two main structural systems in building construction. The buildings up to four floors were constructed of brick masonry with reinforced concrete floor structures.
Status of Earthquake reconstruction projects — NRA
The bearing walls were mainly 25 cm thick and built with lime mortar. The higher buildings had a mixed structural system masonry and reinforced concrete frames in one orthogonal direction. Only a small number of buildings were built as reinforced concrete frame structures in which the frame system was placed predominantly in one of the building plane directions. All the buildings were designed to sustain three types of loads, i.
The wind intensity in Skopje is moderate, and the effect for lower buildings mostly masonry is almost none. For higher buildings, the wind effect produces certain horizontal forces that can be compared to slight seismic effects. Despite the fact that the whole territory of the Republic of Macedonia was known as an area of high seismic activity, the seismic effect was not considered in the design of buildings constructed before Apart from a weak structural system, in view of their special purpose department stores, restaurants, etc.
It was also characteristic of this period that schools, hospitals and other public buildings were designed to sustain the same load, except for the life load which was somewhat higher than that of residential buildings. Consequently, the safety level of all buildings, regardless of their purpose, was more or less the same. Construction technology was characterized by a conservative approach. Such construction methods did not make it possible to reach the required quality of materials for seismic resistance. Several years before the earthquake, in Skopje as well as in many other towns, the existing old buildings built mainly of masonry were enlarged by one or two floors.
The height of the enlargement depended on the courage of the engineers. Such enlargements of old buildings were very frequent. Reconstruction was carried out primarily to "enrich" the function of the buildings which usually led to weakening of the already rather weak structure.
Disaster Risk Reduction Based Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (DR4)
In the old part of Skopje, on the left bank of the Vardar river, there were many buildings with a timber structure with earth infilling and rather heavy roofs. The ground floors of these buildings were used as shops.
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- Post-Earthquake Reconstruction in Nepal - Building Back Better.
- Budget Allocation in districts and projects.
The number of killed and injured 4 is far below what would be expected with the intensity of damage. There are two main reasons for this:. The highest level of destruction was observed in buildings constructed before , while it was somewhat lower for those built between and Less destruction but rather heavy damage was characteristic of the buildings constructed in the period 5. However, a large proportion of these buildings were further from the epicentral zone. The high level of damage to dwellings can be seen from the fact that dwellings were completely demolished, 11 were severely damaged and were torn down after the earthquake since there was no economic justification for trying to repair them , 14 were heavily damaged, and were slightly damaged 4.
Only some dwellings, or about 4. Table 4. In addition to the damage to residential buildings, the following damage was recorded to other buildings in Skopje:. Percentage of losses of dwelling houses, dwellings and useful living areas After Petrovski J. The damage caused to industrial buildings was less severe, mainly because they were on the outskirts of the town, further from the epicentre, and because they were better built to withstand the shock.
Only a few industrial buildings such as tall chimneys, a big exhibition hall, a few workshops and the bus station were destroyed. Other industrial buildings withstood the earthquake with less or no damage. The steel mill, which at the time was under construction, suffered only minor damage. Tall reinforced concrete skeleton structures and modem engineered structures such as factories, mills, bridges, dams, underground installations, highway embankments and railways - none of which had been designed to resist earthquakes but had been well designed and constructed for normal operating conditions - suffered little damage.
Two concrete dams near Skopje suffered absolutely no damage 5. The water supply system and some underground telephone cables were damaged by falling buildings or heavy debris. In other places, only slight leaks were found, and in one place only a subsidiary water pipe was damaged by the relative movement of its supporting structure where it crossed a ravine 5.
Post-earthquake School Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Programme in Ramechhap District
On the basis of data collected after the earthquake and their classification, the damage distribution map was drawn Fig. Four principal zones can be distinguished:.
It is in the western part of the city and includes a portion of the lower slopes of the Vodno hill and the entire left bank of the Vardar river. It includes the Vodno hill as well as the extreme south-eastern part of the town. Distribution map of Skopje after the earthquake.
According to data from the federal commission of the government of the former Yugoslavia in which the then Republic of Macedonia was one of the six constitutive republics 4 , the total damage directly attributed to the earthquake was estimated at approximately 1 billion US dollars at values, while the restitution value of material losses was estimated at approximately 1. In addition to the tremendous destruction and loss of human life, the earthquake in Skopje led to the abandonment of some traditional urban customs. Namely, the earthquake occurred during a time when the political system was very much committed to building up social relationships, equality, and personal as well as collective safety.
The earthquake made some people leave Skopje - some temporarily and some for good - causing traumata and additional stress to the citizens- All believed that they would eventually return to their destroyed or damaged homes, but a large number of them about 70 were displaced to live in new-suburban settlements. The distance between the suburban settlements was sometimes more than 10 km.
Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Public Management (ICPM 2016)
People necessarily had to accept new neighbours and to forget the way of life they used to have. This distribution of people changed cultural customs. There was also large-scale immigration into Skopje. It has been estimated that in the years after the earthquake about people immigrated to the city, mainly from poor areas. For many years after the earthquake, Skopje had little distinct character.
City life and city customs only returned during the last 20 years. However, the earthquake created possibilities for many of the citizens to improve their economic and social conditions. Those in the new suburban settlements were given houses and land at very low prices, while nowadays the value of that property has risen considerably. The earthquake also led to change in communication between people. Skopje became a city which people travelled from or which they visited, providing many possibilities to meet other people and exchange experience and knowledge.
The system of civil protection in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was organized in a semi-military style, directly under the government of the governing party at that time, the Communist Union. Although the citizens of Macedonia and the rescue services had no practical experience of rescue operations under such conditions, according to the documents of the time 4 , they moved into action quickly and mobilized efficiently. However, the fact remains, and was emphasized by the media, that in a large number of cases the citizens organized themselves.